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Billington, Ray Allen. The Far Western Frontier, 1830-1860. The New American Nation Series. New York: Harper, 1956.
Ray Allen Billington's two-fold objective is to (1) describe the movement of European settlers into the far west and those significant events that influenced their migration and (2) to campaign his position pertaining to Frederick Jackson Turner's "frontier hypothesis." Turner held that the new American man of the mid-1800s was as much a product of the environment as he was of his European heritage. Billington seeks to examine the impact of particular western environments on those who settled within it. In this 1956 volume, there are obvious omissions concerning those profiled as settling the West. Unfortunately, race, sexuality, gender, and species are given little attention in the way of influence on the emerging landscape of the pre-Civil War western frontier. [K. Mackall]