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De Certeau, Michel. "Part III: Spatial Practices" The Practice of Everyday Lie. Steven Rendall, trans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. 91-130.
De Certeau wants to study "the systems of operational combination which also compose a 'culture' and . . . the models of action characteristic of users whose status as the dominated element in society (a status that does not mean that they are either passive or docile) is concealed by the euphemistic term consumer." These operations are the ruses we employ within the confines of a totalizing, panoptic system. Thus de Certeau sets up a series of categories of analysis based on this pattern: strategy and practice (e.g. urban planning and walking), place and space, and grammar and rhetoric. The first aspect of the system ist heoretical, voyeuristic, and yet also concrete. This structure proves productive in the case of the place/space system (contained within the three chapters "Walking in the City," "Railway Navigation and Incarceration," and "Spatial Stories"). Place is a sort of "locatedneess." It is geometrical space and accounts for the fact that two things cannot occupy the same place at the same time. Space, on the other hand, is a "practiced place." De Certeau says that in its relation to place, space is like the word spoken "that is, when it is caught in the ambiguity of an actualization, transformed into a term dependent upon many different conventions." Spaces are determined by historical subjects, by the users of places. "Thus the street geometrically defined by urban planning is transformed into space by walkers." This sections of de cCerteau's work is complex but well worth the effort. It has special resonance post-September 11, 2001: the first section, "Walking in the City," begins with the (fragmented) sentence: "Seeing Manhattan from the 110th floor of the World Trade Center." [N. King]